"Sonic Performativity: Analysing Gender in North Indian Classical Vocal Music." Ethnomusicology Forum 24 (3) 2015: 349–79. Doi:10.1080/17411912.2015.1082925
Musicians and listeners hear many aspects of contemporary North Indian classical vocal music as gendered: genres, improvisational techniques and even certain ornaments evoke gendered connotations. However, analytical work on this music has failed to take gender into account, so the relationship between gender and musical sound remains unexamined. In this article, I explore how issues of gender might come to bear on the close analysis of North Indian classical vocal music. First, I present an overview of the gendered musical landscape of the tradition. I then draw upon work by Judith Butler in order to theorise this in terms of what I call ‘sonic performativity’: I argue that North Indian classical musicians perform gender sonically and that this influences the subtlest nuances of musical style. Finally, I demonstrate ways in which considerations of gender inform the stylistic decisions of one singer, detailing how she negotiates gendered musical norms.
'New Light on the Earliest Medieval Songbook' in H. Deeming and E. Leach, Manuscripts and Medieval Songs: Inscription, Performance, Context (CUP, 2014) pp. 9-34
The manuscript sources of medieval song rarely fit the description of ‘songbook’ easily. Instead, they are very often mixed compilations that place songs alongside other diverse contents, and the songs themselves may be inscribed as texts alone or as verbal and musical notation. This book looks afresh at these manuscripts through ten case studies, representing key sources in Latin, French, German, and English from across Europe during the Middle Ages. Each chapter is authored by a leading expert and treats a case-study in detail, including a listing of the manuscript’s overall contents, a summary of its treatment in scholarship, and up-to-date bibliographical references. Drawing on recent scholarly methodologies, the contributors uncover what these books and the songs within them meant to their medieval audience and reveal a wealth of new information about the original contexts of songs both in performance and as committed to parchment
The Melodic Tradition of Boethius "De consolatione philosophiae" in the Middle Ages
Monumenta Monodica Subsidia Series VII, 2 vols., Bärenreiter, Kassel, 2013
On the Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius (d. 524) was arguably the second most widely read book of the Middle Ages after the Bible. In this two-volume study, Sam Barrett brings together for the first time all the surviving medieval musical notations added to the poetic portions of the work, which survive in manuscripts dating from the ninth through to the eleventh centuries. The first volume comprises a detailed study of the sources, the development of new analytical techniques for assessing a musical tradition handed down largely in neumatic notation, a study of the melodic transmission and an account of historical context. The second volume contains plates, transcriptions and commentaries for all the surviving notations presented first singly and then in comparative tables. This comprehensive study is both an invaluable resource for performers and scholars interested in reconstructing an overlooked melodic tradition and a major contribution to understanding early medieval Latin song.
Sentimental Opera: Questions of Genre in the Age of Bourgeois Drama
Cambridge University Press. 2013
Castelvecchi's book is an in-depth study of the relationship between opera and two major phenomena in eighteenth-century Europe - the cult of sensibility and the emergence of bourgeois drama - and offers a critical re-evaluation of the operatic genre system in the age of Mozart.
The Flight (OUP, 2015)
Earlier this year I spent a great deal of time in libraries looking for a suitable text for my new carol and although I unearthed many old and very beautiful poems about the Nativity, I struggled to find one that I really wanted to set to music. I had a growing sense that at this precise moment it is perverse to be writing a piece about a child born in poverty, away from home and forced to flee with his parents, without in any way paying reference to the appalling refugee crisis that is unfolding.
I phoned my friend, the poet George Szirtes to ask if he might be prepared to write me a poem which could encompass some of these ideas. By complete coincidence, the very day I phoned he was in Hungary, at Budapest railway station talking to the refugees who were stuck there while trying to leave the country. Within days, George sent me a poem that is at once beautiful, eloquent and hard-hitting.
Hallé / Nicholas Collon conductor
BCMG / Gerry Cornelius, Ryan Wigglesworth conductors
Millennium Scenes was written in 1998-99: rather than an empty celebration of the turn of a century, the composer writes that 'I had in mind a series of fleeting images... - a TV commercial, perhaps, a couple arguing, laughter, a dead animal on the road, religious fervour, a child being hit - almost anything, in fact, but all of them real events taking pace around the turn of the millennium.'
By contrast with the massive orchestra of Millennium Scenes, Notturno explores the night landscapes evoked by poet Salvatore Quasimodo, while As Kingfishers Catch Fireexploits the colours of flute, clarinet, harp and string quartet. Chamber Symphony, which closes the disc, juxtaposes ideas of the mechanical and natural, partly inspired by the composer's fascination with the writings of William Blake.
‘“Sound Effects (O.K., Music)”: Steve Reich and the Visual Arts in New York City, 1966–68.’ Twentieth-Century Music, 11/2 (2014): 217–44
This article explores Steve Reich’s relationship with New York City’s downtown artworld during the latter half of the 1960s, aiming to nuance aspects of early minimalism by tracing diachronic connections with the Park Place gallery, the exhibition Anti-Illusion: Procedures/Materials, Richard Serra, Sol LeWitt, and movements such as process art and conceptualism. I suggest that, rather than revealing Reich’s prior compositional philosophy, his 1968 treatise ‘Music as a Gradual Process’ demonstrated aesthetic cohesion with the stance of a particular milieu, mirroring a broader linguistic turn in contemporaneous art and revealing a certain discrepancy between theory and praxis. Drawing on newspaper reception, I explore Reich’s compositions from Melodica (1966) to Pendulum Music (1968), arguing that these pieces gained both aesthetic value and institutional credibility through being understood in relation to concurrent artwork and ideas, affording productive horizons of expectation.
Beyond the Score: Music as Performance
Oxford University Press. 2013
In Beyond the Score: Music as Performance, author Nicholas Cook supplants the traditional musicological notion of music as writing, asserting instead that it is as performance that music is loved, understood, and consumed. This book reconceives music as an activity through which meaning is generated in real time, as Cook rethinks familiar assumptions and develops new approaches. Focusing primarily but not exclusively on the Western 'art' tradition, Cook explores perspectives that range from close listening to computational analysis, from ethnography to the study of recordings, and from the social relations constructed through performance to the performing (and listening) body. In doing so, he reveals not only that the notion of music as text has hampered academic understanding of music, but also that it has inhibited performance practices, placing them in a textualist straightjacket.
'Performing live in Second Life' (with Justin Gage) in S. Whiteley and S. Rambarran, The Oxford Handbook of Music and Virtuality (OUP, 2016), pp. 191-209
This chapter provides a general introduction to music in the virtual world Second Life, focusing on relationships between music making in Second Life and in the real world. Concerts in Second Life typically aim to reproduce the conditions of live music in real-world venues. There are, however, significant technological constraints on such reproduction. First, the music is made in the real world and streamed into Second Life. Second, the variable lag that is a basic feature of Second Life means that accurate synchronization of images, gestures, chat, and streamed sound is impossible. From a case study of the virtual band Redzone (of which Gagen is a co-founder), we argue that the most effective way to create liveness in Second Life is not to reproduce the conditions of real-world performance, but rather to reconstruct liveness based on the technological affordances of virtual reality.
Hallam, S., Cross, I. and Thaut, M. (eds) Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, 2nd Edition (OUP, 2016)
The second edition of the Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology updates the original landmark text which provided a comprehensive review of the latest developments in this fast growing area of research. The second edition has 55 chapters (three more than the original edition) divided into 11 parts covering both experimental and theoretical perspectives each edited by an internationally recognized authority in the area. The first ten parts present chapters that focus on specific areas of music psychology: the origins and functions of music; music perception, responses to music; music and the brain; musical development; learning musical skills; musical performance; composition and improvisation; the role of music in everyday life; and music therapy. In each part authors critically review the literature, highlight current issues and explore possibilities for the future. The final part examines how, in recent years, the study of music psychology has broadened to include a range of other disciplines. It considers the way that research has developed in relation to technological advances, providing an overview of the areas where the field needs further development.
Blake, E.C. & Cross, I. The Acoustic and Auditory Contexts of Human Behavior
Current Anthropology Vol. 56 No. 1: The Chicago University Press (2015)
Sound is a crucial component of the human communicative toolkit; however, as a topic of research, it has been relatively neglected in archaeological method and theory. In this paper we develop and present a framework within which inferences can be made about the significance of sound in the past that are not bounded by the particularities of current cultural contexts. Such a framework should be multidisciplinary and draw on what is known scientifically about human sensitivities to and uses of sound, including: nonverbal vocalizations; speech and music; ethological studies that offer insight into how sound perception and environment affect sociality and survival; and the effects of environment on socially significant human sound.
Robert Lachmann's 'Oriental Music' Broadcasts, 1936-37: A Musical Ethnography of Mandatory Palestine
A-R Editions, 2013
The ethnomusicologist Robert Lachmann (1892–1939) wrote and presented twelve radio programs entitled Oriental Music, which were transmitted by the Palestine Broadcasting Service between November 1936 and April 1937. The programs, which formed part of Lachmann’s pioneering project to establish an “Oriental music archive” at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, included live performances of traditional music representing the different ethnic and religious communities of Palestine, performances which were simultaneously recorded onto metal disc.
This edition presents Lachmann’s scripts with musical transcriptions of performances, transcriptions and translations of the sung texts, and selected digitally restored musical recordings (provided on the accompanying set of compact discs). The introduction and editorial commentaries explore Lachmann’s radio lectures as they relate to his body of research on “Oriental music” and to wider concerns of scholarship, politics, and ideology. This edition will appeal to scholars of Middle Eastern cultural history and ethnomusicology, and especially to those interested in the history of sound archives, recording and broadcasting, the intellectual history of ethnomusicology, and the history, theory, and aesthetics of Middle Eastern music. Winner of a 2014 Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC) Award for Excellence.
Fenlon, I. A., & Groote, I. M. (2013).
Heinrich Glarean’s World
Cambridge University Press. 2013
This collection of essays investigates the work of Heinrich Glarean, one of the most influential humanists and music theorists of the sixteenth century. For the first time, Glarean's musical writings, including his masterwork the Dodekachordon, are considered in the wider context of his work in a variety of disciplines such as musicology, history, theology and geography. Contributors reference books from Glarean's private library, including rare and previously unseen material, to explore his strategies and impact as a humanist author and university teacher. The book also uses other newly discovered source material such as course notes written by students and Glarean's preparations for his own lectures to offer a fascinating picture of his reactions to contemporary debates. Providing a detailed analysis of Glarean's library as reconstructed from the surviving copies, Heinrich Glarean's Books offers new and exciting perspectives on the multidisciplinary work of an accomplished intellectual.
Stalin's Music Prize: Soviet Culture and Politics (Yale, 2016)
Marina Frolova-Walker's fascinating history takes a new look at musical life in Stalin's Soviet Union. The author focuses on the musicians and composers who received Stalin Prizes, awarded annually to artists whose work was thought to represent the best in Soviet culture. This revealing study sheds new light on the Communist leader's personal tastes, the lives and careers of those honored, including multiple-recipients Prokofiev and Shostakovich, and the elusive artistic concept of "Socialist Realism," offering the most comprehensive examination to date of the relationship between music and the Soviet state from 1940 through 1954.
Hawkins, S., Cross, I. and Ogden, R. (2013) Communicative interaction in spontaneous music and speech.
In M. Orwin, C. Howes, and R. Kempson, (eds.) Language, Music and Interaction. Communication, Mind and Language Vol. 3. London: College Publications. 285-329.
Speech and music are both communicative media, but though scholars have compared their formal properties, research into parameters that influence everyday talking and the group performance of music (as opposed to formal written or read language, and presentational music) is only in its infancy. Starting from the position that speech and music share many communicative functions, albeit often in different proportions, this paper examines spontaneous conversation and jointly improvised music in a search for common processes underlying successful spoken and musical interaction, compared with unsuccessful interactions. The paper first examines musical and spoken communication from a number of perspectives in the literature, and then reports a new study which shows that when two interactants make successful music together, while talking immediately before, after, or during their playing, they entrain such that spoken and musical pulses are mutually supportive: more closely aligned in time than when the music is less successful, with mutual, dynamic accommodation to each other being the norm, rather than one person being the leader. These results are consistent with evidence from a range of literature that addresses either music or speech, but break new ground in exploring musical and linguistic interaction within a common framework that enables us to identify shared mechanisms across the two domains. One hypothesis emerging from this work is that the acoustic cues that allow two people to successfully predict each other's behaviour, and hence to coordinate their actions over extended time periods, are relatively local. This means that joint action can be achieved by directing attention to the particular points in time when it is crucial to achieve temporal coordination, thereby releasing cognitive resources for other types of expression in the intervening periods.
Flamenco, Regionalism and Musical Heritage in Southern Spain (Routledge, 2016)
In recent years, the Andalusian Government has embarked on an ambitious project aimed at developing flamenco as a symbol of regional identity. In 2010, flamenco was recognised as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, a declaration that has reinvigorated institutional support for the tradition. The book draws upon ethnomusicology, political geography and heritage studies to analyse the regionalisation of flamenco within the frame of Spanish politics, while considering responses among Andalusians to these institutional measures.
Drawing upon ethnographic research conducted online and in Andalusia, the book examines critically the institutional development of flamenco, challenging a fixed reading of the relationship between flamenco and regionalism. The book offers alternative readings of regionalism, exploring the ways in which competing localisms and disputed identities contribute to a fresh understanding of the flamenco tradition. Matthew Machin-Autenrieth makes a significant contribution to flamenco scholarship in particular and to the study of music, regionalism and heritage in general.
Heinrich Schenker and Beethoven's 'Hammerklavier' Sonata
In 1912 Heinrich Schenker contracted with the Viennese publisher Universal Edition to provide an 'elucidatory edition' (Erläuterungsausgabe) of Beethoven's last five piano sonatas. Each publication would comprise a score, newly edited by Schenker and using the composer's autograph manuscript as principal source, together with a substantial commentary combining analytical, text-critical and performance-related matter. Four of the five editions appeared between 1913 and 1921, but that of the 'Hammerklavier' Sonata, op. 106, was never published. It has generally been assumed that this was simply because Schenker was unable to locate the autograph manuscript, which remains missing to this day. But as Nicholas Marston shows in a detailed history of the Erläuterungsausgabe project, other factors were involved also, including financial considerations, Schenker's health concerns, and his broader theoretical ambitions. Moreover, despite the missing autograph he nevertheless developed a voice-leading analysis of the complete sonata during the years 1924-1926, a crucial period in the development of his mature theory of tonal music. Marston's book provides the first in-depth study of this rich analysis, which is reproduced in full in high-quality digital images. The book draws on hundreds of letters and documents from Schenker's Nachlaß; it both adds to our biographical knowledge of Schenker and illuminates for the first time the response of this giant of music theory to one of the most significant masterworks in all music.
Schenker left behind approximately 130,000 manuscript and typescript leaves comprising unpublished works, preparatory materials, and personal documents, preserved in two dedicated archives, numerous libraries, and private possession. (See "Major Collections.") The archived papers of several other scholars, among them Guido Adler, Oswald Jonas, Moriz Violin, and Arnold Schoenberg, also preserve correspondence and other documents relating to Schenker and his circle.
Schenker Documents Online offers a scholarly edition of this material based not on facsimiles but on near-diplomatic transcriptions of the original texts, together with English translations, explanatory footnotes, summaries, and contextual material relating the texts to Schenker's personal development and that of his correspondents.
'Identity and Diversity: The Idea of Regional Musical Notations'
In 'Nationes', 'Gentes' und die Musik im Mittelalter, ed. Frank Hentschel and Marie Winkelmüller (Berlin and Boston, 2014), 375-93
This volume is the outcome of an international meeting at the Justus-Liebig University in Giessen in 2011 at which historians, musicologists and literary scholars sat together to discuss ideas about geographical, cultural and political aspects of identity in the middle ages, as they might be expressed in musical theory and practice of the middle ages. The notion that ideas and judgments about music are based on cultural-specific and national frames of reference and ideologies was not invented in the modern era. Taking an interdisciplinary perspective, this volume examines the role played by notions of communities such as Germani, Itali, and Franci in medieval writings about music during the period between about 900 and 1500. Contributors include Hans-Werner Goetz, Rosamond McKitterick, Alheydis Plassman, Jürgen Strothmann, Marie Winkelmüller, Andreas Haug, Uta Goerlitz, Frank Hentschel, Giancarlo Andenna, Klaus-Jürgen Sachs, Gunnar Wiegand, Jörg W. Busch, Joseph Dyer, Barbara Haggh-Huglo, Susan Rankin, Oliver Huck, Margaret Bent, Michel Huglo and Wolfgang Hirschmann.
Chopin: koncerty fortepianowe
The book of John Rink is the first such comprehensive discussion of Chopin's concertos, to which the author has enabled the Allegro de Concert , Op. 46. The author of an interesting and comprehensive way shows the source and the trials and tribulations associated with the publication of their concerts, the reception in the scientific literature and critical, and thoroughly discusses the more prominent registered their execution. In the analytical part, by comparison with previous concerts in the style brillant , Rink shows how - despite external similarities - Chopin concertos differ from contemporary patterns of species and proves unfounded allegations made concerts in the literature. Demonstrates extraordinary emotional logic of these works, also draws attention to a number of specific composer's later work procedures, which previews are shown in the concerts. A very interesting discussion of the Allegro de concert is the first monograph on the track. The work of John Rink is extremely useful for musicologists, but especially useful for musicians-performers, because it contains a number of reasoned guidelines implementing, and finally - brings concerts to all lovers of Chopin's art.
Blithe Wine (2016) for bassoon and string quartet. 24 mins. Premiere: Peter Whelan, Mr McFalls’ Chamber, Queen’s Hall, Edinburgh.
'Exercising Musical Minds: Music and Phrenology in London, c. 1830', 19th Century Music, 39 (2015), pp. 99-124
The icon of the machine in early-nineteenth-century Britain was subject to a number of contemporary critiques in which pedagogy and the life of the mind were implicated, but to what extent was education in music composition influenced by this? A number of journal articles appeared on the topic of music and phrenology, bolstered by the establishment of the London Phrenological Society (1823), and its sister organization, the British Phrenological Association (1838). They placed the creative imagination, music, and the “natural” life of the mind into a fraught discourse around music and materialism. The cost of a material mind was a perceived loss of contact with the “gifts of naturer . . . the dynamical nature of man . . . the mystic depths of man’s soul” (Carlyle), but the concept of machine was also invested with magical potential to transform matter, to generate energy, and can be understood as a new ideal type of mechanism. These confliciting ideals and anxieties over mechanism, as paradigm and rallying cry, are here situated in the context of music pedagogy during the second quarter of the century, with particular reference to amateur musicians and the popular appeal of phrenological “exercise,” and of devices such as Johann Bernhard Logier’s “chiroplast.”
The Singing of the Strasbourg Protestants, 1523-1541 (Routledge, 2016)
Music was, in some form or another, a pastime enjoyed by all in sixteenth-century society, and a fundamental part of their lives. It was both through the use of music and partly as a result of its existence that many religious changes occurred during the Reformation. This book explores the part played by music, especially group singing, in the unfolding of the Protestant reforms in Strasbourg. It considers both ecclesiastical and ’popular’ songs in the city, examining how both genres fitted into people’s lives during this time of strife, and how the provision and dissemination of music as a whole affected, and in turn was affected by, the new ecclesiastical arrangement. Whilst it would be naive to assume that the congregations were transformed from impious to pious overnight as the result of the introduction of German hymns, it is clear that there were real and concerted efforts on the part of reformers to get people to embrace the new faith, and writing hymns for them to sing was central to the process. Drawing upon a range of sources - including liturgical orders and hymnals, polemical songs, chronicles of the Reformation and text manuscripts - the book explores the methods by which new songs were introduced in Strasbourg churches, and suggests how congregations might have learnt them. In so doing it provides an account of the process by which reformers found music a place in the new Church, and used it to promote their wider reform agenda.
'Quirk Shame', Representations, Vol. 132 (Fall, 2015), pp. 121-129
Although music historians have begun to consider some of the broad implications of large-scale digitization, the shift from traditional library- or archive-based methods of research to speculative Internet text searching remains largely invisible within an unchanged scholarly apparatus of footnotes and bibliographies. As a result, quirky details become easier to find, yet that ease is itself concealed, perhaps, this article argues, because to admit it might occasion a variety of academic shame.
"More German than Beethoven": Rossini's Zelmira and Italian Style
In B. Walton, & N. Mathew (Eds.), Cambridge University Press. 2013
Beethoven and Rossini have always been more than a pair of famous composers. Even during their lifetimes, they were well on the way to becoming 'Beethoven and Rossini' – a symbolic duo, who represented a contrast fundamental to Western music. This contrast was to shape the composition, performance, reception and historiography of music throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The Invention of Beethoven and Rossini puts leading scholars of opera and instrumental music into dialogue with each other, with the aim of unpicking the origins, consequences and fallacies of the opposition between the two composers and what they came to represent. In fifteen chapters, contributors explore topics ranging from the concert lives of early nineteenth-century capitals to the mythmaking of early cinema, and from the close analysis of individual works by Beethoven and Rossini to the cultural politics of nineteenth-century music histories.
Romaria: Choral Music from Brazil, Choir of Gonville & Cauis College, Director Geoffrey Webber, Delphian Records
'Romaria', a word suggesting pilgrimage, crowds and processions, evokes much of what is distinctive about modern Brazil – its mix of people, its vibrancy, its faith. This survey of modern Brazilian choral music reflects these qualities, as well as the natural wonders of this amazing land. Geoffrey Webber and his ever-adventurous choir sing both sacred and secular works dating from the 1950s through to the present, in a programme developed in conjunction with experts from the University of São Paulo’s music department. This collaboration also led to the reconstruction of the rainforest soundtrack that originally accompanied Henrique de Curitiba’s inventive and unusual piece Metaphors.